Adderall Side Effects, Addiction, Abuse & Withdrawal
Adderall is a psychostimulant amphetamine medication that’s most commonly prescribed to reduce symptoms of ADHD. Unfortunately, it is also widely abused as a result of its assumed”cognitive-enhancing” effects, which can result in addiction and other serious negative consequences. Keep reading to learn about its possible negative side-effects and other risks connected with it!
Disclaimer: This post is not a recommendation or endorsement for Adderall. This medication is simply FDA-approved for treating certain specific medical ailments, and may only be obtained by prescription and also with oversight by a licensed medical professional. We’ve composed this post for informational purposes only, and our aim is solely to inform people about the science behind Adderall’s effects, mechanisms, current medical uses, and possible risks.
Adderall Side Outcomes
Given that Adderall has fulfilled FDA approval for official medical usage, the majority of scientific evidence confirms the overall safety and efficacy of Adderall when used as prescribed, and under the supervision of qualified caregivers.
Nonetheless, Like every medication, there is always at least some possibility of having adverse side-effects, and so it is important to be aware of these.
In general — and similar to many commonly-used pharmaceutical medications — the speed of adverse side-effects tends to increase at progressively higher doses.
Adderall is a commonly prescribed medication for ADHD that has a fantastic safety profile in comparison to other stimulants when used properly.
Intense Side Effects
If you experience any of the following symptoms occur after taking Adderall, then contact your doctor immediately:
- Seizures (convulsions)
- Changes in vision or blurred vision
- Pupil dilation (mydriasis)
- Allergic reactions: symptoms of the can include itching or hives, swelling of the mouth, face, or hands, difficulty breathing, feeling like you’re about to pass out, or tightness in your chest.
- Fever or perspiration
- Muscle problems such as spasms or twitching
- Nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea
- Hallucinations (visual and auditory)
- Chest pain
- Extreme energy
- Unusual mood or behavior
- Indicators of heart problems (could be fast, slow, or irregular heartbeats)
- Signals of flow problems (unexplained bruises, numbness, chilly, color adjustments, or pain in fingers or toes)
Finally, misuse of Adderall by athletes might be especially dangerous, as it may cause dramatically elevated body temperature (hyperthermia), which can, in turn, induce heat stress. The risks are further increased since the subjectively “stimulating” and “energizing” consequences of Adderall abuse can cover-up (“mask”) that the symptoms of heat stress — such as sudden fatigue or fatigue — that, when trapped or ignored, can result in serious medical emergencies.
Serious unwanted effects like seizures, confusion, elevated body temperature, changes in perception, and heart problems are infrequent. Get immediate medical assistance if you experience any of these.
Common Side Effects
The Following side-effects aren’t as acute, but have now been reported to occur slightly more often in patients taking Adderall:
- Dry mouth
- Reduction of appetite
- Weight loss (Though weight loss may potentially be counteracted through the use of other (complementary) drugs like cyproheptadine, or even by simply swallowing a higher-calorie diet)
- Stomach pain
According to one report, Adderall may impair momentary memory in certain users.
Psychological Side Effects
Adderall may also lead to”antisocial” feelings, maintaining users from enjoying or engaging in interactions with other people.
Some Of the psychological side-effects of Adderall may happen because of the considerably elevated levels of dopamine that Adderall (along with other amphetamines and stimulants) cause during the mind — a mechanism that’s also shared with other major psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia. For example, according to a study of 14 amphetamine-dependent patients, 12 were reported to move on to develop psychosis. This reportedly resulted in quite a few schizophrenia-like symptoms, such as extreme paranoia and hallucinations.
Weight-Related Negative Effects
To one study of 56 children and adolescent ADHD patients, among the most frequently reported unwanted side-effects of Adderall was fat loss. This was prominent at higher doses.
Even though Adderall-induced weight loss is generally not severe, in some cases it’s been reported to contribute to anorexia. By way of instance, one study of 584 children discovered that anorexia happened in 21.9% of psychostimulant patients. Similarly, a study of 287 teens reported that the occurrence of anorexia in up to 35.6percent of those treated ADHD patients.
However, in some relatively rarer cases, Adderall may actually cause weight profit. By way of instance, the writers of one case study of an 11-year old boy reported that Adderall use increased one young boy’s burden by 8.8 lbs. In only 6 weeks. Modifying the time of Adderall intake from right after meals to 45 minutes before meals reportedly helped to normalize this abrupt and intense weight gain.
Mild weight loss is among the most frequent side effects, though weight gain has also been reported. Psychological side effects, such as stress and antisocial feelings, are also possible but rarely severe.
Cardiovascular Side Effects
One Of the most dangerous side-effects of therapy with amphetamines — including Adderall and many others — can be a heart attack or stroke. Even though these side-effects have the potential to happen in anybody, patients with a personal or family history of heart ailments are believed to be at a particularly elevated risk of having these complications.
These Heart issues and other negative cardiovascular side-effects could possibly be brought about by the significant changes in pulse and blood pressure that are generally seen following Adderall intake. On average, Adderall raises heart rate by 1-2 beats a minute. As the dose is increased, heart rate rises proportionately — and this may lead to dangerously elevated heart rate or blood pressure.
Adderall also stimulates β-adrenergic receptor sites all over the body, which causes the release of this neurotransmitter norepinephrine. Norepinephrine is believed to play a leading role in sparking increased heart rate and blood pressure, which may further contribute to some of Adderall’s potential cardiovascular risks.
Additionally, some researchers have noted that the cardiovascular risks of Adderall might be significantly increased when it is combined with alcohol — and consequently, patients are usually advised against consuming alcohol while on an Adderall prescription.
Because Adderall can increase heart rate, some researchers have advised that prospective patients should undergo an electrocardiogram testing before proceeding with therapy. In part, this is as it’s thought that a lot of those (otherwise rare) cases of patients that suffered from amphetamine-induced heart attacks were not screened for potential underlying heart problems, which therefore could have potentially prevented these unlucky (though relatively infrequent) incidents.
Adderall might increase heart rate, which is dangerous for people with heart disease or in conjunction with alcohol. Your physician can suggest an electrocardiogram or other tests before prescribing Adderall for you, especially if you fall within a high-risk group.
Adderall Contraindications & Drug Interactions
Although Adderall has lots of relatively well-supported medical applications when administered by qualified caregivers, there are a number of factors that doctors may look for that might disqualify someone from getting Adderall therapy (due to elevated risk of negative side-effects or other adverse reactions).
Among the very Dangerous potential side-effects of Adderall may be cardiovascular problems, such as heart attacks or strokes. Patients with a personal or family history of heart conditions are believed to be at significantly elevated risk of these kinds of side-effects and are therefore generally highly discouraged by utilizing Adderall or other amphetamines or stimulant medications.
Some of the additional contraindications contrary to Adderall use include:
- High blood pressure (hypertension) and also Several Other cardiovascular conditions
- Intense stress
- Tourette’s syndrome (muscle twitches, otherwise known as tics)
- Frequent seizures
- Background of drug abuse
- Overactive thyroid (hyperthyroidism)
- History of allergies or hypersensitivities to Adderall or some other amphetamines
Additionally, As a result of potential security concerns, you consult with your doctor prior to taking Adderall if you have one of these conditions:
- Pregnancy / breastfeeding
- Heart or blood vessel diseases
- Kidney disorder
- History of heart attack, stroke, or seizure
- Self-history or family history of depression or mental health issues
- Liver damage
Additionally Make sure you tell any physician or dentist you see that you are about Adderall, as it may affect the results of certain medical tests.
Like Many medications, Adderall (and other amphetamines and stimulants) can interact with the effects of other medications, which could possibly lead to major and highly-dangerous health issues.
As always, the best way to minimize the risk of adverse drug interactions would be to discuss all treatment options with your doctor And to make sure he or she’s fully informed about any other drugs or supplements you are taking, other preexisting health conditions, or some other possibly health-related aspects that may impact your treatment.
As an example, mixing alcohol with Adderall has been connected with significantly increased risks of heart attacks and other adverse cardiovascular events.
Mixing Adderall and monoamine-oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) can also be tremendously dangerous. Combining these two types of medication can result in potentially-severe side-effects such as:
- Muscle spasms (hyperkinesis and opisthotonus)
- Fever (of around 109.4 ℉)
It Is also important to be aware that MAOIs can stay in the body for up to several days or weeks after stopping these drugs. For all these reasons, many experts advise patients that have taken MAOIs to wait at least 14 days prior to starting another prescription for Adderall.
In Addition to these two examples, Adderall has also been reported to interfere with a number of other drugs and medications. Ask a doctor about using Adderall if taking any of the following medications or chemicals:
- Ammonium chloride
- Glutamic acid
- Sodium acid phosphate
- St. John’s Wort
- Tryptophan supplements
- Allergy medicine
- Sodium bicarbonate
- Blood pressure medications
- Migraine medications
On the flip side, there are also some potential interactions that can be detrimental by interfering with the curative effects of Adderall in people who are taking it as instructed by their physician. For example, taking high doses of vitamin C (such as by utilizing vitamin supplements), or perhaps just drinking juices high in vitamin C, have been reported to interfere with the absorption or action of Adderall from the body, which may in turn”cancel out” the planned therapeutic effects of the medication.
Many drugs can interact with Adderall. Your healthcare provider will discuss potential interactions and examine all the medications and supplements you’re taking before prescribing Adderall.
Adderall Addiction and Withdrawal
Adderall is widely considered to have a relatively high risk of dependence, addiction, and withdrawal symptoms.
This Is true when it’s used properly and legally, under the supervision of a health professional. But, physicians generally minimize these dangers by prescribing the proper dose to every patient, according to their individual healing needs and medical history. This medical method of reducing risk is just one of the principal reasons why it’s so important to only utilize psychostimulant drugs like Adderall just as prescribed and directed by a health care provider.
Conversely, The risks for addiction, addiction, and potentially-severe withdrawal syndromes are dramatically increased when Adderall (along with other psychostimulant drugs ) are abused.
Withdrawal can involve a number of moderate-to-severe symptoms, including:
- Amphetamine cravings
- Social dysfunction
Adderall Abuse (Non-Prescribed Usage)
Due To the rising prevalence and normalization of Adderall usage among specific populations, lots of individuals have confused beliefs that Adderall abuse is not considered dangerous. In fact, according to a recent survey of college students, just 2% of students that abusing Adderall considered the drug might be “very dangerous,” while up to 81 percent of Adderall abusers believed Adderall to be “not dangerous at all” or only “slightly dangerous”.
Abuse Rates also have been increasing in adults. By way of instance, the number of adults over the age of 55 who have been delivered to the ER as a result of complications in amphetamine abuse increased by 700% only between the years of 1995 and 2002 alone. Relatedly, a few public health studies have estimated that the number of adults that will require treatment for amphetamine abuse may grow from 1.7 million in 2000 to up to 4.4 million in 2020.
Furthermore, some evidence suggests that the ability to”clear out” (metabolize) Amphetamines tends to diminish with age. It has led some researchers to suggest that adults may be at a relatively greater risk of amphetamine misuse and dependence since their bodies can not process the medication as efficiently.
A lot of individuals wrongly believe taking Adderall without a prescription is not dangerous, which has led to an increase in misuse among both college students and middle-aged adults.
Adderall Abuse for “Cognitive Enhancement”
One Of the most prevalent reasons that folks report abusing Adderall is to maximize their ability to concentrate, or enhance their motivation for school- and work-related pursuits.
For example, according to a recent survey of students who abuse Adderall (“non invasive Adderall consumers “), 93.5% reported abusing Adderall and other stimulants in order to increase their attention during analyzing.
Students who abuse Adderall also generally report:
- Improvements in mood
- Increased motivation to work
- Less time needed to achieve jobs
- Increased physical and mental energy
However, There’s actually very little scientific evidence supporting that Adderall genuinely or significantly improves cognitive performance in non-prescription users.
For Example, one study of 46 volunteers noted that Adderall had no untoward effects on memory, imagination, intellect, or standardized test scores — even though the volunteers believed their performance was advancing!
Merely Believing that Adderall can “enhance” cognitive performance might, in actuality, assist some people by simply raising self-confidence. Therefore, even if there’s absolutely no real “cognitive boost,” some of those “cognitive enhancements” which Adderall abusers typically claim to experience may just be driven by the placebo effect.
Nonetheless, many researchers believe that these widespread and persistent misconceptions concerning the so-called”cognitive-enhancement effects” of amphetamines are still one of the principal things driving people to abuse Adderall and other controlled materials.
People falsely think that Adderal is a “cognitive enhancer,” but there isn’t any proper information on its cognitive effects in otherwise healthy people who abuse it. Evidence suggests that this “cognitive boost” is probably a placebo effect.
Adderall Is among the most commonly prescribed drugs for ADHD. It’s a good safety profile compared to other stimulants when used properly.
Intense Side effects such as seizures, confusion, changes in understanding, and heart problems are rare. Get immediate medical assistance if you notice any of them.
Mild weight and emotional side effects may also be possible but rarely acute.
Regrettably, Adderall abuse is rising due to a false belief that this drug is “harmless.” College students and adults take it for “cognitive enhancement” and athletes abuse it to “boost physical performance.”
Adderall Includes a high potential for addiction and it can interact with alcohol and many prescription drugs. Adderall abuse massively increases the risk of serious unwanted effects, addiction, and withdrawal.